Candy, gum, toothpaste, baked goods, and some diet foods are sweetened with xylitol. It can cause your dog’s blood sugar to drop and can also cause liver failure. Early symptoms include vomiting, lethargy, and coordination problems. Eventually, your dog may have seizures. Liver failure can happen within just a few day
Is a treat from the table OK for your dog? That depends on what it is. Avocados, for example, have something called persin. It’s fine for people who aren’t allergic to it. But too much might be poisonous to dogs. If you grow avocados at home, keep your dog away from the plants. Persin is in the leaves, seed, and bark, as well as the fruit.
Alcohol has the same effect on a dog’s liver and brain that it has on people. But it takes a lot less to hurt your dog. Just a little beer, liquor, wine, or food with alcohol can be bad. It can cause vomiting, diarrhea, coordination problems, breathing problems, coma, even death. And the smaller your dog, the worse it can be.
Onions and Garlic
Keep onions and garlic — powdered, raw, cooked, or dehydrated — away from your dog. They can kill his red blood cells, causing anemia. That’s eventhe onion powder in some baby food. A rare small dose is probably OK. But eating a lot just once or can cause poisoning. Look for signs like weakness, vomiting, and breathing problems.
Coffee, Tea, and Other Caffeine
Give your dog toys if you want him to be perky. Caffeine can be fatal. Watch out for coffee and tea, even the beans and the grounds. Keep your dog away from cocoa, chocolate, colas, and energy drinks. Caffeine is also in some cold medicines and pain killers. Think your dog had caffeine? Watch for restlessness, fast breathing, and muscle twitches.
Grapes and Raisins
There are better treats to give your dog. Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs. And just a small amount can make a dog sick. Vomiting over and over is an early sign. Within a day, your dog willget sluggish and depressed.
Milk and Other Dairy Products
On a hot day, it may be tempting to share your ice cream with your dog. Instead, give her an ice cube. Milk m and milk-based products can cause diarrhea and other digestive problems for your pup. They can also trigger food allergies, which can cause her to itch.
Keep your dog away from macadamia nuts and foods that have macadamia nuts in them. Just six raw or roasted macadamia nuts can make a dog sick. Look for symptoms like muscle shakes, vomiting, high temperature, and weakness in his back legs. Eating chocolate with the nuts will make symptoms worse, maybe even leading to death.
Most people know that chocolate is bad for dogs. The problem in chocolate is theobromine. It’s in all kinds of chocolate, even white chocolate. The most dangerous types are dark chocolate and unsweetened baking chocolate. Chocolatecan cause a dog to vomit and have diarrhea. It can also cause heart problems, tremors, seizures, and death.
Fat Trimmings and Bones
Fat trimmed from meat, both cooked and uncooked, can cause pancreatitis in dogs. And, even though it seems natural to give a dog a bone, she can choke on it. Bones can also splinter and block or cause cuts in your dog’s digestive system.
Persimmons, Peaches, and Plums
The problem with these fruits is the seeds or pits. Seeds from persimmons can cause problems in a dog’s small intestine. They can also block his intestines. That can also happen if a dog eats the pit from a peach or plum. Peach and plum pits also have cyanide, which is poisonous to people and dogs. People know not to eat them. Dogs don’t.
Some people feed their dogs a “raw diet” that includes uncooked eggs. But the major veterinary medical associations don’t think that’s a good idea. There’s the chance of food poisoning from bacteria like salmonella or E. coli. Talk to your vet if you have questions.
It’s not a good idea to share salty foods like chips or pretzels with your dog. Eating too much salt can make your dog seriously thirsty. That means a lot of trips to the fire hydrant and it could lead to sodium ion poisoning. Symptoms of too much salt include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, high temperature, and seizures. It may even cause death.
Sugary Foods and Drinks
Too much sugar can do the same thing to dogs that it does to people. It can make your dog overweight and cause problems with her teeth. It can even lead to diabetes.
Before it’s baked, bread dough needs to rise. And, that’s exactly what it would do in your dog’s stomach if he ate it. As it swells inside, the dough can stretch your dog’s abdomen and cause a lot of pain. Also, when the yeast ferments the dough to make it rise, it makes alcohol that can lead to alcohol poisoning.
Dogs shouldn’t take people medicine. It’s can make them very sick. Just as you do for your kids, keep all medicines out of your dog’s reach. And, never give your dog any over-the-counter medicine unless your vet tells you to. Ingredients such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen are common in pain relievers and cold medicine. And, they can be deadly for your dog.
Kitchen Pantry: No Dogs Allowed
Many other things often found on kitchen shelves can hurt your dog. Baking powder and baking soda are both highly toxic. So are nutmeg and other spices. Keep food high enough to be out of your dog’s reach and keep pantry doors closed.
It started about five years ago with a practical chemistry question.
Little did Bill Poirier realize as he delved into the quantum mechanics of complex molecules that he would fall down the rabbit hole to discover evidence of other parallel worlds that might well be poking through into our own, showing up at the quantum level.
The Texas Tech University professor of chemistry and biochemistry said that quantum mechanics is a strange realm of reality. Particles at this atomic and subatomic level can appear to be in two places at once. Because the activity of these particles is so iffy, scientists can only describe what’s happening mathematically by “drawing” the tiny landscape as a wave of probability.
Chemists like Poirier draw these landscapes to better understand chemical reactions. Despite the “uncertainty” of particle location, quantum wave mechanics allows scientists to make precise predictions. The rules for doing so are well established. At least, they were until Poirier’s recent “eureka” moment when he found a completely new way to draw quantum landscapes. Instead of waves, his medium became parallel universes.
Though his theory, called “Many Interacting Worlds,” sounds like science fiction, it holds up mathematically.
Originally published in 2010, it has led to a number of invited presentations, peer-reviewed journal articles and a recent invited commentary in the premier physics journal Physical Review.
“This has gotten a lot of attention in the foundational mechanics community as well as the popular press,” Poirier said. “At a symposium in Vienna in 2013, standing five feet away from a famous Nobel Laureate in physics, I gave my presentation on this work fully expecting criticism. I was surprised when I received none. Also, I was happy to see that I didn’t have anything obviously wrong with my mathematics.”
In his theory, Poirier postulates that small particles from many worlds seep through to interact with our own, and their interaction accounts for the strange phenomena of quantum mechanics. Such phenomena include particles that seem to be in more than one place at a time, or to communicate with each other over great distances without explanations.
There is no fuzziness in his theory. Particles do occupy well-defined positions in any given world. However, these positions vary from world to world, explaining why they appear to be in several places at once. Likewise, quantum communication of faraway particles – something Albert Einstein called “spooky action at a distance” – is actually due to interaction of nearby worlds.
Many Interacting Worlds theory doesn’t prove that the quantum wave does not exist, or that many worlds do exist, Poirier said. The standard wave theory is perfectly fine in most respects, providing agreement with experiment, for example.
“Our theory, though based on different mathematics, makes exactly the same experimental predictions,” he said.
“So what we have done is to open the possibility that the quantum wave may not exist. It now has only as much right to that claim as do many interacting worlds – no more and no less. This may be as definitive a statement as one can hope to make about a subject that has confounded the best minds of physics for a hundred years and still continues to generate controversy.”
At this nanoscopic scale, particles don’t act like larger objects, whose position over time is well defined, such as an airplane or an apple falling from a tree.
Instead, particles sometimes behave as fixed particles, and other times behave more like waves. Even weirder than this: when scientists look at a quantum particle, it behaves like a particle. When they’re not looking, it suddenly starts acting like a wave.
Even Albert Einstein is said to have disagreed with the quantum idea that particles could exist in an approximate possible location or possibly more than one location at a time rather than just one place.
“I like to think the moon is there, even if I am not looking at it,” Einstein famously said on the topic.
Scientists dissect and disagree to this day as to exactly what’s happening on this tiny scale. Although they may not know for sure what’s happening, they do at least know how to predict the wave-like behavior of the quantum particle when it’s not being observed.
For this, they use the Schrödinger Equation, a mathematical description invented in the ’20s that describes how these crazy particles move as a wave over time.
At least, they did until Poirier took another look at the wave and upended established quantum theory.
Some physicists can make much about the philosophy of quantum mechanics, Poirier said. For a chemist such as himself, however, he is less interested in the philosophy and more interested in solving Schrödinger’s quantum wave equation to help him understand chemical reactions.
“In physical chemistry, we are interested in solving problems involving large, complex molecules as accurately as we can,” he said. “We’re looking for the reaction rate for a chemical reaction, the allowed quantum states of a molecule and the spectral ‘fingerprint’ that a molecule emits or absorbs when we shine a light on it. … There is a paradox here. To answer these kinds of questions accurately requires quantum mechanics, but solving quantum mechanics problems for large systems (more than three bodies) is extraordinarily difficult.”
Chemists use traditional grid-based methods for solving the quantum wave equation. However, the more complex the molecule, the more complex the computations become. With each atom added to the molecule, about 10,000 times more additional computational effort is needed, he said.
To ease the computational burden, chemists borrowed an idea from engineers to allow the grid points to move like a liquid and “flow” with the quantum wave. Once moving, the grid points trace out trajectories, much like a baseball. While engineers use the technique to model fluid flow, chemists use it to help calculate the motion of the quantum wave –hence the term ‘quantum hydrodynamics.’
At a certain point, Poirier wondered what would happen if you left the wave computations out and just worked with the quantum trajectories and if the simpler numerical simulation still would be valid.
“My key insight was to realize that all you really need are the moving quantum trajectories themselves,” he said.
“The quantum wave is not actually needed to tell your trajectories how to move. The trajectories tell themselves how to move. Moreover, you don’t need the wave for anything else either. Any scientific question that might be answered by knowing the motion of the wave can also be answered just as easily by knowing the motion of the trajectories alone. So the wave becomes completely extraneous and can be discarded altogether.”
Window Into Wonderland
The concept of many quantum worlds isn’t quite new. In the ’50s, a graduate student at Princeton University named Hugh Everett III had a similar explanation to account for the strangeness of quantum mechanics.
Poirier said Everett Many Worlds theory is based on the standard quantum wave mathematics, so it is not clear where the worlds actually come from or how they’re defined. Critics disagree with the theory for this reason and because the universes fork into countless more each time scientists, say, take a measurement.
In Poirier’s Many Interacting Worlds approach, these worlds are built into the mathematics right from the start, so scientists don’t have to do anything special to define them. It works, he said, because wave-based mathematics aren’t used. Worlds never fork or merge the way Everett’s worlds do, and Poirier’s worlds interact with each other. Everett’s do not.
“The Many Interacting Worlds theory works more like a flock of birds than an infinitely branching tree,” he said.
Poirier compared figuring out quantum mechanics without the wave function to putting up scaffolding, building a structure inside and then realizing you just needed the scaffolding. From a practical point of view, fewer mathematical moving parts mean greater simplicity.
It also posed interesting questions about the physics philosophy on the wave and what it means if you don’t need it, he said. Quantum trajectories may be more than just a computational tool. They actually may explain what is going on at the quantum level.
“People have argued for a long time about what the wave function means philosophically and how it should be interpreted,” he said. “Now we suddenly realized that this may be entirely the wrong way to frame the argument. The more fundamental question should be, ‘Does the wave function even exist, and if not, what takes its place?’ At present, we cannot say definitively that the wave function does not exist. Only that its existence is not necessary, because we’ve found another mathematical method that provides all the same information. So, what does this new mathematics have to say about what takes the place of the wave function? What emerges from the math are parallel universes.”
Poirier explained that in the classical physical world where humans operate, everything is in a definite state with respect to velocity and position. Think airplanes and apples falling out of trees. We can calculate where those things are and where they’re going.
In quantum mechanics, scientists have to give that up. They can know where particles are or where they’re going. Not both. The classical trajectory, with its well-defined particle attributes, has been replaced with the quantum probability wave that spreads out across many simultaneous possibilities.
However, by describing quantum realities using quantum trajectories alone, at least some of the old classical notions can be restored, Poirier said. According to this picture, quantum particles really do have well-defined attributes and follow definite quantum trajectories.
The catch is that one has to have many interacting worlds. In fact, quantum behavior itself may be regarded as evidence of definite particles from alternate universes poking through into our own, causing this blurry picture at the quantum scale.
“That’s the most radical and interesting part of this approach,” he said. “Assuming that reality is now described by many trajectories instead of a wave, we have to ask what these trajectories really mean, physically. The only sensible interpretation is to think of each trajectory as representing a different world. In each world, nothing is wave-like or indefinite. Everything is sharp and well-defined. But there are now multiple worlds. The variation across these worlds is where quantum uncertainty or ‘fuzziness,’ together with all other quantum behavior, actually comes from.”
The apparent fuzziness of particle positions may be regarded as a manifestation of an inter-world interaction. Poirier says that while the wave equation still works, scientists can no longer say that it more naturally explains what’s going on at the quantum scale than the idea of many alternate universes interacting together at the quantum scale.
Both are equally valid ways of interpreting reality that are consistent with current experiments.
As for describing what might be happening right now in other parallel universes, Poirier said that would be pure speculation.
“We don’t have proof that an alternate me or you might be president,” he said. “I can’t say whether those worlds exist or not. According to the theory, the only worlds we can directly interact with are so close to our own world that we hardly can tell them apart, except at the quantum scale. So that might be a little bit boring for people who like to think in terms of science fiction. On the other hand, that doesn’t rule out the possibility that there are indeed more distant worlds macroscopically different from our own where you and I are living out any number of counterfactual existences. We don’t have any direct evidence for that. But then again, nor should we, according to the theory, even if such worlds do exist.”
The glaciers that crawled across Canada into the northern tier of the lower 48 states during the most recent ice age wiped out earthworms in those areas. In other parts of the U.S., you may find native earthworm species, but the worms living in the regions scoured by glaciers are invaders from overseas, brought here intentionally by early settlers on the assumption that the worms would improve the soil, or carried accidentally in shipments of plants or even in dirt used as ballast in ships.
The northern forest evolved after the glaciers retreated, yielding an ecosystem that does not benefit from earthworms. These forests require a deep layer of slowly decomposing leaves and other organic matter called “duff” that overlays the soil. When earthworms invade these forests, they quickly eat up the duff, with the result that nutrients become less available to young, growing plants and the soil, instead of aerating and loosening, becomes more compact.
The combined effects of such developments have resulted in damage to trees such as sugar maples and to many forest herbs and understory plants, such as trillium, rare goblin ferns, trout lilies and other forest-floor species. In some areas, oak forests have been overrun by buckthorn, and in others the presence of earthworms has allowed the invasion of Japanese barberry.
As duff disappears, so do the insects and other small creatures that depend on it for survival, with the result that animals such as salamanders lose a key food source and face population declines. Earthworm burrows also may speed the passage of water through forest soil, another change that might be a benefit to farmland or a garden with compacted soil but that is a negative in a northern forest.
Charles Darwin published The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms in 1881. It was his last scientific book, and his most successful. In it, he explains that the very ground we walk upon has passed through the bodies of worms and emerged as castings. He also estimated that there are more than 53,000 worms at work in any given acre of land, and reported that they had turned a rocky field behind his uncle’s house into smooth soil over the course of many years. He was fascinated by the work of the earthworm, which he called an “unsung creature which, in its untold millions, transformed the land as the coral polyps did the tropical sea.” On the surface, the study of earthworms seems to have little to do with the work on evolution and natural selection that made him famous. But this book, too, was about the inexorable processes of nature that, over long spans of time, can bring about dramatic changes.
The book started as a paper, which Darwin presented before the Geological Society of London in 1837. In 1842, Darwin spread a layer of chalk fragments over a pasture near his house and observed the worms’ effect on it for almost 30 years. He placed a large, flat stone – which he dubbed the worm stone-in a field and measured the movement of soil as the worms digested the earth beneath the stone. He also kept worms inside the house, examining the effects of bright light and sound. He figured out through trial and error what the worms’ favorite food was: carrots. He was fond of the worms, which were unmoved by art or music – much as Darwin himself remained unmoved by the arts.
By 1881, Darwin’s health was failing, and he remarked to a friend that he wanted to complete his book on worms before he joined them in the local cemetery. He pushed his publisher to bring the book to press as soon as possible. When it was first published, the work of 44 years, Worms was a best-seller, and Darwin received a surprising amount of fan mail. He died six months after the book was published.
More than a half-century ago, the folk singer Woody Guthrie signed a lease in an apartment complex in Brooklyn. He soon had bitter words for his landlord: Donald J. Trump’s father, Fred C. Trump.
Mr. Guthrie, in writings uncovered by a scholar working on a book, invoked “Old Man Trump” while suggesting that blacks were unwelcome as tenants in the Trump apartment complex, near Coney Island.
“He thought that Fred Trump was one who stirs up racial hate, and implicitly profits from it,” the scholar, Will Kaufman, a professor of American literature and culture at the University of Central Lancashire in Britain, said in an interview.
Mr. Kaufman said he came across Mr. Guthrie’s writings about Fred Trump while he was doing research at the Woody Guthrie Center’s archives in Oklahoma. He wrote about his findings last week for The Conversation, a news website.
In December 1950, Mr. Guthrie signed a lease at the Beach Haven apartment complex, Mr. Kaufman wrote in his piece. Soon, Mr. Guthrie was “lamenting the bigotry that pervaded his new, lily-white neighborhood,” he wrote, with words like these:
Old Man Trump knows
Just how much
he stirred up
In the bloodpot of human hearts
When he drawed
That color line
Here at his
Eighteen hundred family project
Mr. Guthrie even reworked his song “I Ain’t Got No Home” into a critique of Fred Trump, according to Mr. Kaufman:
Beach Haven ain’t my home!
I just can’t pay this rent!
My money’s down the drain!
And my soul is badly bent!
Beach Haven looks like heaven
Where no black ones come to roam!
No, no, no! Old Man Trump!
Old Beach Haven ain’t my home!
Mr. Guthrie died in 1967, and in the 1970s, the Justice Department sued the Trumps, accusing them of discriminating against blacks. (A settlement was eventually reached; at the time, Trump Management noted the agreement did not constitute an admission of guilt.)
A spokeswoman for Donald Trump declined to comment on Mr. Guthrie’s writings.
“Woody was always championing those who didn’t have a voice, who didn’t have any money, who didn’t have any power,” Mr. Kaufman said. “There’s no doubt that he would have had maximum contempt for Donald Trump, even without the issue of race.”
Woody would want you to vote. Be certain that you do and keep this family out of the White House.
June 1944: Boats full of US troops wait to leave Weymouth to take part in Operation Overlord. 5 April 2014: A view of the harbour of the English town today. This location was used as a launching place for Allied troops participating in the invasion of Nazi-occupied France on D-day. Photographs by Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
May 1944: Ammunition stored in the town square of Moreton-in-Marsh shortly before D-day. 12 May 2014: A view of the high street in the English town today. Photographs by Frank Scherschel/Time & Life/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
June 1944: American craft of all styles pictured at Omaha Beach, Normandy, during the first stages of the Allied invasion. 7 May 2014: A view of the beach near Colleville-sur-Mer, France. Photographs by Popperfoto/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
6 June 1944: Royal Marine Commandos of Headquarters, 4th Special Service Brigade, make their way from LCI(S) (Landing Craft Infantry Small) onto ‘Nan Red’ Beach at Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer. 6 May 2014: A view of the sea in the Juno beach area today. Photographs by Lt Handford/IWM/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
6 June 1944: Troops of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division land at Juno Beach on the outskirts of Bernières-sur-Mer on D-day. 5 May 2014: A view of the seafront and beach in Normandy today. 340 Canadian soldiers lost their lives in the battle for the beachhead. Photographs by Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
1944: A French armoured column passing through Sainte-Mère-Église receives a warm welcome from its inhabitants. 7 May 2014: A view of the high street today. Photographs by Popperfoto/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
12 June 1944: A group of American soldiers stand in the village of Sainte-Marie-du-Mont, which was liberated by paratroopers of the 501st and 506th Regiments of the 101st Airborne Division. 7 May 2014: A view of the old village fountain today. Photographs by Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
6 June 1944: A Canadian soldier directs traffic in Bernières-sur-Mer. 14,000 Canadian soldiers had landed at nearby Juno Beach. 5 May 2014: A view of Notre-Dame Nativity church today. Photographs by Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
July 1944: United States Army trucks and jeeps drive through the ruins of Saint-Lo. 7 May 2014: A view of the roadway in the town today. Saint-Lo was almost totally destroyed by 2,000 Allied bombers when they attacked German troops stationed there during Operation Overlord. Photographs by Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
6 June 1944: A Canadian soldier stands at the head of a group of German prisoners of war, including two officers, on Juno Beach, Normandy. 8 May 2014: A view of the beach in Bernières-sur-Mer in Normandy today. Photographs by Ken Bell/ National Archives of Canada/Galerie Bilderwelt/Getty and Peter Macdiarmid/Getty
It doesn’t take a scientific study for dog owners to believe that their pets know what they’re saying. (We cat owners are a little less certain.)
But it’s not always clear exactly what Fido is paying attention to.
When we say “Good dog!” dogs hear both the words we say and how we say them, new brain scans show. For people, both the word and intonation are important, but no one knew—until now—whether that was also the case for dogs. (See “Dogs Are Even More Like Us Than We Thought.”)
In a study published August 29 in Science, scientists found the canine brain also processes the information in a similar way as humans.
“I’m quite excited by this finding. It’s really exciting to see such close correspondence between brain activity in humans and dogs,” said Chris Petkov, a neuropsychologist at the U.K.’s University of Newcastle who was not involved in the study.
Dog Brains Are a Lot Like Ours
Study leader and dog lover Attila Andics started studying canines as a way to understand how the mammalian brain processes language.
The first step was not an easy one: Training dogs to remain absolutely still in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. It took several months for dog trainers to work their magic on 13 pet dogs that live in Hungary, including six border collies, four golden retrievers, one German shepherd, and one Chinese crested.
“The hardest part was getting them to understand that they needed to lie absolutely still. Once they realized that we meant completely still, it worked out great,” says Andics, an ethologist at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, Hungary. (See “Can Dogs Feel Our Emotions? Yawn Study Suggests Yes.”)
Speech, however, was different. “There’s nothing in nature that’s as complex as human speech,” said Sophie Scott, a neuroscientist at University College London who wasn’t part of the new study.
‘That’s a Good Dog’
So with the same group of 13 dogs, Andics and colleagues played recordings of their owners talking in four different ways: A praising word (such as the Hungarian word for “clever” or “that’s it”) in a praising tone, a neutral word in a neutral tone, a praising word in a neutral tone, and a neutral word in a praising tone.
His neuroimaging results showed that the left hemisphere of the dogs’ brains responded to the word itself, and that their right hemisphere responded to intonation. (See “5 Amazing Stories of Devoted Dogs.”)
However, it took both a praise word and a praising tone to activate the dog’s reward center. In other words, your pet knows when you’re praising them and you actually mean it.
“For some dogs, praise might be enough to get them to do what you want. In this study, we treated our dogs like happy volunteers who wanted to please us,” Andics said.
The key to good dog behavior, then, is letting your pet know that they really are a good dog.
The presidential nominees joined NBC’s Matt Lauer to answer questions from veterans and discuss her plans for the U.S. Hillary Clinton went first and Donald Trump followed her. Each candidate had 30 minutes.